Scots Timeline – 1270 to 1305

Events during the life of Sir William Wallace

5 Aug 1270 – Birth date of William Wallace based on Crawford family records reviewed by Craufuird C. Loudoun (pen name for John McGill of Kilmarnock).
19 Mar 1286 – King Alexander III dies in Fife on his way home late at night. Queen Margaret, “Maid of Norway,” inherits Scots throne.
28 Aug 1290 – Treaty of Birgham: “Maid of Norway” to marry King Edward’s son, Scotland to retain its separate identity.
26 Sep 1290 – Queen Margaret dies, canceling Treaty of Birgham.
30 May 1291 – Claimants to Scots throne meet King Edward I at Norham.
17 Nov 1292 – John Balliol named King of Scots by Edward I who demands fealty.
30 Nov 1292 – John Balliol crowned at Scone.
Early 1294 – King Edward I summons Balliol and other Scots to serve with him in France. None do.
23 Oct 1295 – “Auld Alliance” treaty negotiated between France and Scotland against England.
23 Feb 1296 — “Auld Alliance” ratified by Scotland.
1 Mar 1296 – English army assembles at Newcastle.
26 Mar 1296 – Seven Earls and Scots army invade Cumberland, assault Carlisle.
30 Mar 1296 – Kind Edward I’s army sacks Berwick, slaughtering two-thirds of its citizens.
8 Apr 1296 – Scots army goes into Northumberland as far as Corbridge.
27 Apr 1296 – Battle of Dunbar, Scots lose.
8 July 1296 – King John, “Toom Tabard,” stripped of royal garments by Edward’s order.
8 Aug 1296 – Stone of Destiny removed from Scone, transported to London.
28 Aug 1296 – Parliament at Berwick: “Ragman Roll,” 2,000 Scots submit to Edward.
3 May 1297 – William Wallace kills Sheriff of Lanark. Some days later, Wallace joins with
Sir William Douglas to drive English Justiciar, William Ormsby, out of Scone.
9 Jul 1297 – Treaty of Irvine by Robert Bruce, Glasgow’s Bishop Robert Wishart at Trindlemoss Loch.
July 1297 – Wallace raids Bishop Wishart’s Palace at Ancrum.
August 1297 – Siege of Dundee Castle by Wallace; later learns of English army approaching Stirling, meets Sir Andrew Murray en route to Stirling.
11 Sep 1297 – Battle of Stirling Bridge; Murray, Wallace, Scots win major battle near Abbey Craig.
11 Oct 1297 – Murray and Wallace write letters at Haddington to Hanseatic League merchants in Hamburg, Lubeck.
7 Nov 12972 – Murray and Wallace send letter to Priory at Hexham. Within hours or days, Murray succumbs to wounds suffered at Stirling Bridge.
Winter 1297-98 – Wallace knighted, named Guardian of the Realm at Kirk of the Forest.
22 Jul 1298 – Battle of Falkirk, Scots lose. Wallace later resigns as Guardian in favor of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, and John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch; travels to France later in the year.
August 1299 – Scots hold council in Peebles, in part discussing trip to France by Sir William Wallace.
23 Feb 1303 – Battle of Roslin; Scots, English in limited skirmish.
3 Aug 1305 – Wallace captured at Robroyston, taken to London. Papers taken from Wallace found at Tower of London in 1830.
23 Aug 1305 – Wallace executed after show trial, drawn and quartered at Smithfield Elms.


1 In Pursuit of Sir William Wallace, Pg. 109, Craufuird C. Loudoun (John McGill), 1999
2 Historians generally accept that Murray, his seal attached to the Lubeck and Hamburg letters, and the letter to Hexham,
lived to or just beyond the 7 Nov 1297 date before succumbing to injuries sustained at Stirling Bridge in September.
3 No longer Guardian, William is absent. Malcolm Wallace, his older brother, is present, defends William’s actions.